Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences (ISSN: 2456-7795)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJOCS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Chemical Sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences 2456-7795 An Overview of Chemistry Teaching Transformation during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Experience from University of Botswana https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19097 <p>COVID-19-related disruption in teaching in the University of Botswana led the school to prepare new strategies for running classes and to design innovative way of instruction.&nbsp; The most notable change was to replace face-to-face lectures with online teaching at least partially (blended teaching and learning). This posed many challenges, especially in the teaching of science and technology subjects. In a laboratory-based discipline such as chemistry the problems encountered were especially daunting.&nbsp; Moreover, writing mathematical equations, chemical reactions and reaction mechanisms posed their own difficulties.&nbsp; The present communication provides a brief overview of how chemistry education at the University, the premier national university of Botswana, has been transformed during the last three semesters.&nbsp; It is based on experience of the author and as judged by the feed-back received from colleagues and the students. Admittedly, the experience is limited and much discussion is still in progress to meet the unresolved challenges. Theory classes at undergraduate levels are now mostly taught online using packages such as Moodle and MS Teams. The tutorial and laboratory sessions have faced the greatest disruptions and the instructors continue to explore ways to conduct these virtually.&nbsp; Online examinations were found to be limited in their effectiveness, especially in the assessment of drawing chemical structure and reaction mechanisms as well as the students’ ability in scientific writing.</p> Girija S. Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 1 6 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419097 Analysis of Pollution Levels of Heavy Elements Using Fractionation Pattern of Street Soils of Langtang North, Plateau State, Nigeria https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19100 <p>Soil Pollution is a serious environmental challenge around the world today. Anthropogenic activities and population explosion have continued to pose great danger to our environment most especially land resources which are fixed. It is against this backdrop that this study assessed the levels of some selected heavy elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn). To achieve this, various fractions of exchangeable bound metals, carbonate bound metals, manganese oxide bound metals, iron/manganese bound metals, organic/sulphide bound metals and residual bound metals in soils of Bala, Gantang, She–for, Walang and Yangang Streets as well as Intorok Street which serves as control, Langtang North, Plateau State, Nigeria were assayed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results show that the bioavailable/soluble fractions ranges in (mg/kg) are for: As (BDL – 34.00), Cd (3.00 - 45.00), Co (BDL – 70.00), Cr (42.00 – 155.00), Cu (47.00 – 73.00), Fe (48.00 – 116.00), Mn (46.00 – 119.00), Ni (42.00 – 108.00), Pb (30.00 – 292.00) and Zn (45.00 – 207.00) in all the Streets investigated. The residual/ insoluble fraction ranges in (mg/kg) are for: As (BDL – 5.00), Cd (1.00 – 11.00), Co (BDL – 25.00), Cr (9.00 – 56.00), Cu (11.00 – 19.00), Fe (11.00 – 28.00), Mn (10.00 – 25.00), Ni (10.00 – 21.00), Pb (11.00 – 68.00) and Zn (9.00 – 47.00). The residual fraction is associated with minimal toxicity since migration and transformation of this fraction under general conditions are limited because of being tightly bound to Fe and Mn oxides and hydroxides. The bioavailable fraction is generally observed to be predominant in all the soil, it is usually associated with anthropogenic factors. Higher heavy element concentrations in these streets were recorded in points where there are evidences of organic load discharge and domestic effluents as in the case of Gantang, Yangang, and Bala streets. The fractionation pattern for the six streets assayed showed the northern (hill) part of Langtang North has no potential risk of contamination. However, the plain or southern part of the study area showed high potential risk that if not monitored will result in serious contamination. Topography plays an important role in the risk factor of heavy element contamination in the study area. The overall results showed evidence of some heavy metal pollution in all the Street soils assayed with possible cumulative effect over time.</p> Lungfa Collins Wuyep U. F. Hassan A. A. Mahmoud T. M. Gudam M. Siman Lumi Zakka Habila Yusuf Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-02 2021-11-02 24 33 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419100 Evaluation of Major and Trace Elements Present in Extracted Humic Acid from Bog Peat https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19102 <p>The human consumption of humic acid is increasingly relevant therefore the knowledge of exact composition is essential. To make a step in that direction we present gap filling results obtained from three different element analytical investigations of humic acid extracted from fen peat examined in the Carpathian Basin. Prompt-gamma activation (PGAA), neutron activation analytical method (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was carried out. After presenting and explaining the essence of used analytical methods we show some collected spectra and a table where all the concentration of the iden- tified elements are presented with the corresponding measurement errors. All together 42 elements were&nbsp; identified. PACS.78.70.En, 78.70. Nx,78. 90.+t X-ray emission spectra and fluorescence, Neutroninelastic scattering, Other topics in optical properties, condensed matter aspect.</p> K. Gmeling T. Kocsis J. Osan Z. Kis M. A. Pocsai K. Tokesi I. F. Barna Gy. Padi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-10 2021-12-10 47 55 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419102 Chemical and Medicinal Properties of Rauwolfia vomitoria (AFZEL) Harvested from the South Eastern Nigeria https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19103 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This work was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents of the leaf of Rauwolfia vomitoria and to determine the activities of the extract on some selected human pathogens</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study was designed to characterize the compounds in the extract and to determine their medicinal applications</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The work was done at the Department of Chemistry Federal University of Technology Owerri</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Standard assay technique was used to evaluate the phytochemical content of the sample. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the chloroform extract of the sample. The anti microbial activities were determines using the well agar diffusion method</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The analysis of the components of the leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria Afzel revealed the presence of 34 compounds with their molecular masses&nbsp; molecular weights and structures, all elucidated. The initial phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids 1.92%, saponins 1.12% , flavonoids 1.15% and cardiac glycosides, the extract showed marked inhibition of the growth of certain human pathogens with inhibition diameters recorded against Klebsiella pnuemonia, 22 mm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18 mm,Aspergillis niger 24 mm and Mucor specie 9 mm but was resistant to Streptococcus specie.The extract contain anti cancer,anti-tumuor antioxidant, anti-inflammatory ,cardioprotectives compounds which inludes phytol, Vitamin E, Campestrol, sistosterol, squalene, lupeol and vaccenic acid.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Owing to the identified properties of the sample ,Rauwofia vomitoria leaf is excellent ingredient for the treatment of diaeases related to Klebsiella pnuemonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aspergillis niger and Mucor specie and also for the treatment cancer, tumuor, inflammation, arthritis,beingn prostate hyperplasia, fibromyalgia, allergies, coronary heart.</p> Iwu Irenus Chinonye Chinonye Chijioke C. Samuel Iwuji Obiagwu Ifeoma Uchenna Onu Lynda Ukaoma Adanma Augusta Chijioke-Okere Maureen Ezekoye. Miracle Oluchukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 56 71 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419103 Synthesis and Characterization of Barium-Iron Oxide Based Neodymium, Gadolinium and Praseodymium Doped Ceramic Materials https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19105 <p>Neodymium, gadolinium, and praseodymium doped barium-iron oxide ceramic materials were synthesized by polymeric precursor method. No carbon contents or the moisture was observed in infrared spectra of the ceramics. Neodymium and gadolinium doped ceramics were crystallized in cubic lattice form, while praseodymium doped ceramic was formed in hexagonal lattice. Same results were observed from SEM images, Neodymium and gadolinium doped ceramics had similar morphological structures, but praseodymium doped ceramics had slightly different morphology. Neodymium and gadolinium doped ceramics consisted of grain-like structure, while praseodymium doped ceramic material consisted of both grain-like and pillar-like crystal structures.</p> Arda Aytimur Serhat Koçyiğit Ibrahim Uslu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 72 79 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419105 Relationship between Vitamin D Status, Dyslipaedemia and Antioxidant Status in Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome in South West, Nigeria https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19107 <p>Dysregulated lipid metabolism and oxidative stress are strong factors that are implicated in the development of proteinuria and glomerular injury in Nephrotic Syndrome (NS). Vitamin D seems to be a promising tool in influencing lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in NS.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims at investigating the relationship between Vitamin D, dyslipaedemia and oxidative stress in NS.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This is a case-control study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Children’s Outpatient Clinic (CHOP) of University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria between year 2019-2021.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study involves fifty children aged 5 to 12 years, freshly diagnosed with Idiopathic NS and fifty apparently healthy children as control. Blood samples were taken from them and analytes quantified by standard laboratory methods. Students’ t test and Pearson correlation were used to compare variables between the two groups respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed significant decrease (<em>P</em> &lt;.001) in Vit. D levels, GPX, SOD and CAT in NS. A significant decrease (P&lt;.001) occurred in HDL, a significant increase (<em>P</em> &lt;.001) in TG, TC and LDL levels in children with NS when compared with the control. There was a strong significant positive relationship between Catalase and Vit. D, SOD and Vit. D (r= 0.896, 0.869 respectively, <em>P</em>&lt;.001) in NS. While a weak non significant positive relationship occurred between HDL and Vit. D, GPX and Vit D (r=0.0585, 0.0236 respectively, <em>P</em> &gt;.001). A weak negative relationship occurred between TG and Vit. D, TC and Vit. D, LDL and Vit. D (r=-0.0432,-0.219, -0.231 respectively, <em>P</em>&gt;.001), in NS. Thus, vitamin D insufficiency influences serum lipid profiles and antioxidants in paediatric Idiopathic NS. &nbsp;</p> Ayobola Sonuga Mary Adeyanju Oyebola Sonuga Ibikunle Akinlua Ayokunle Makanjuola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 80 89 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419107 Metal Complexes of Gatifloxacin: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Biological Activity https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19109 <p>The antibiotic agent Gatifloxacin is well known for its drug design and coordinating ability towards metal ions. In this paper, synthesis and biological activity of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Mg(II) complexes of gatifloxacin is reported. Ligand is itself prepared using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) and 3-acetyl coumarin. The structure of complexes has been investigated using some physiochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In vitro evaluation of these complexes was also carried out for antibacterial and antimicrobial activity. Some complexes exhibited promising anti-bacterial and antimicrobial activity compared to gatifloxacin drug.</p> Nikunj Dave Hardik Bhatt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 98 107 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419109 A Review on Synthesis and Biological Activity of Curcumin and Curcumin Derivatives https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19099 <p>Curcumin is a common polyphenolic composite and is the main chemical component of Curcuma longa linn.commonlyknown as turmeric. It is a well-known natural herbal herb traditionally utilized as a flavoring and coloring agent in Indian cooking. Curcumin chemically is diferuloyl methane unit [1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl)-1,6 heptadiene-3,5-dione] including two ferulic acid residues linked by a methylene bridge. An aromatic o-methoxy phenolic group, α,β-unsaturated β-diketo moiety and a seven carbon linker are essential for the activity. Extensive research gave proof for the role of these various functional groups in its significant biological activities. Due to physiochemical properties such as solubility, stability, bioavailability issues its use is limited in the therapy. To widen its use, various curcumin derivatives and analogs were summarized and assessed for its biological influence. The present review summarisesthe different ways of synthesis of curcumin derivatives with its potential activities that are now in development for the enhancement of bioavailability and therapeutic activity.</p> . RinaIkhar Prafulla Sabale Pravin Kadam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-30 2021-10-30 7 23 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419099 Research Progress in the Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Catalyst Optimization https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19101 <p>The catalyst can speed up the chemical reaction and increase the selectivity of the target product, playing an important role in the chemical industry. By improving the performance of the catalyst, the economic benefits can be greatly improved. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), as one of the most popular machine learning algorithms, has parallel processing and self-learning capabilities as well as good fault tolerance, and has been widely used in various fields. By optimizing the catalyst through ANN, time and resource consumption can be greatly reduced, and greater economic benefits can be obtained. This article reviews how CNN technology can help people solve highly complex problems and accelerate progress in the catalytic world.</p> Zhiqiang Liu Wentao Zhou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-08 2021-11-08 34 46 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419101 Research on Application of Artificial Neural Network in Fault Diagnosis of Chemical Process https://www.journalajocs.com/index.php/AJOCS/article/view/19108 <p>Chemical processes are usually toxic, corrosive, flammable and explosive. If the process fails, the danger is extremely high. Traditional model-based fault diagnosis methods need to establish an accurate mathematical model of the system, while modern engineering processes are usually large in scale and complex, and it is difficult to establish an accurate mathematical model. Artificial neural network has been widely used in chemical process because of its advantages of parallel processing, self-adaptation, robustness, learnability and fault tolerance. Artificial neural networks based on "deep learning" have been successfully applied to fault diagnosis in various chemical processes. This article summarizes the principle and development process of artificial neural networks, and analyzes the research progress and application status of deep neural networks in chemical process fault diagnosis based on cases. Finally, it is pointed out that deep neural network in the field of chemical process fault diagnosis is of great significance in solving the impact of less fault data and system state changes on the fault detection rate, and promoting the industrial application of fault diagnosis models.</p> Haonan Wang Yijia Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 90 97 10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419108